Vitrectomy Surgery for Macular Oedema
Vitrectomy is commonly performed for macular oedema when the macula is thickened because of epiretinal membrane (ERM). It is not so commonly done for macular oedema unless due to vitreomacular traction syndromes or taut posterior hyaloid face (TPHF) syndrome, which is usually associated with diabetic retinopathy.
More recently vitrectomy has been used to treat macular oedema in diabetics without TPHF and macular oedema due to branch retinal vein occlusion. In all cases the surgery is only performed if there is no posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) because the theory is that the surgery works by relieving traction (pulling) by the vitreous on the macula and by increasing the amount of oxygen that diffuses onto the surface of the macula. The technique is exactly the same as that used in vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane with the optional extra of lifting the retinal arteriole off the vein in branch retinal vein occlusion.